Thursday, June 07, 2012
Business Success Rate at Stem Cell Agency: Zero in Latest Round After 14 Fail
California biotech companies chalked up a zero in the latest funding round by the state's $3 billion stem cell agency, although 14 tried to run a gauntlet that industry has complained about for years.
All $69 million in last month's translational research round went to 21 academic and nonprofit insitutions. No business received an award. One firm, Eclipse Therapeutics of San Diego, appealed to the agency's governing board but was not successful despite having a higher scientific score than at least two winners.
The miniscule amount of funding for commercial enterprises – less than 4 percent of $1.4 billion handed out so far – has been a matter of concern for some time for both industry and some members of the CIRM governing board. Most recently, industry executives complained at an April hearing of the Institute of Medicine panel looking into CIRM's operations. Even a 2010 review commissioned by CIRM said the agency needed to do better by business.
The question of funding goes beyond a simple matter of fairness or "good science," as CIRM describes its funding goal. Without efforts by industry to turn research into cures, CIRM will not be able to fulfill promises to voters in 2004 when they approved creation of the stem cell agency. CIRM last month approved a set of five-year goals that push more aggressively for development of commercial products, but the goals lacked such things as a financing round devoted solely to business applicants.
In last month's translational round, applicants went through a three-step process, which is conducted primarily behind closed doors. First came what CIRM calls pre-applications. Those were reviewed by CIRM staff with the help of outside advisors if necessary. Applicants who cleared that hurdle were allowed to apply for the full, peer-reviewed round. During that process, the CIRM Grants Working Group reviews applications, makes decisions and sends them to the full CIRM board for ratification and possible changes. The board almost never has rejected a grant approved by reviewers. But the board has ultimate authority and sometimes funds applications that reviewers have rejected. The applicants' names are withheld from the board and the public during the process, although some of the board discussion and the final vote is conducted in public. CIRM does not release the names of rejected applicants unless they appeal.
In the translational round, a total of 42 pre-applications out of 167 were approved by staff, according to CIRM. Thirty-eight came from nonprofits and academics out of the 153 such institutions that applied. Four out of 14 business pre-applications advanced to full applications but none made the final cut. All of the winning applications were linked to institutions that have representatives on the CIRM governing board. Those representatives are not allowed to vote on or take part in discussion involving applications to their institutions.
The primary decision tool used by the grant review group is a scientific score. In last month's round, scores of approved grants ranged from 88 to 53. However, eight grants that were ranked above 53 were rejected by the board. One of those higher-ranking applications came from San Diego's Eclipse Therapeutics, which scored 58. The low-ranking grants were approved for what CIRM describes as "programmatic" reasons.
More than three weeks ago, the California Stem Cell Report asked CIRM for figures on the numbers of applications in the translational round, including those for business. CIRM said the figures had not been compiled and would not be available until after the awards were made on May 24. The numbers were finally supplied yesterday.
Our take: The number of applicants, and their breakdown, is basic information that should be part of board's decision-making process. The statistics should be routinely available well in advance of the board's meeting. Indeed, the agency in its earlier days used to routinely publish the figures. It may be now that generating them is more time-consuming than necessary. The recent performance evaluation of the agency said CIRM needs to make major improvements in how it handles critical information needed for its top management and board.
Whatever the reason, given CIRM's poor track record with business, the agency's directors should diligently track industry's success rate on applications. If proposals ranked as low as 53 are approved while higher ranking applications from business are bypassed, it warrants more than cursory examination.